Cells

For this section, there is no point avoiding the truth, lots to remember so get started!

Animal cells:
NUCLEUS - Carries instructions for making new cells and chromosomes and DNA. Controls activities in the cell.
CYTOPLASM - Gel in which the reactions happen.
MEMBRANE - Controls what substances come in or go out of cell.
MITOCHONDRIA - Energy is released here in respiration
RIBOSOMES - Where proteins are made

What is in a cell

Plant cells also have:
WALL: Made of cellulose, gives strength and structure
CHLOROPLASTS - Found in sun lit parts, contain CHLOROPHYLL and they photosynthesize.
VACUOLE- Void full of sap in the middle of the cell to support the plant.

Bacteria cells also have PLASMIDS which are circular strands of DNA and they have FLAGELLA or long protein strings that bacteria use to swim around. They also have both a cell wall and a cell membrane. The Bacterium live in colonies which are visible to the naked eye despite each cell being less than 1 micrometer long.

Yeast cells are single celled organisms as well and they also have both a cell wall and a cell membrane. They are larger at 3 to 4 micrometers long. They are specialised to live with very little oxygen so rather than aerobic respiration, they use anaerobic respiration. This process is used in fermentation to make ethanol in brewing.

There are many specialized cells in the human body that you need to be aware of such as fat cells, cone cells, root hair cells and sperm cells.


Key words and terms for this topic: nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, protein synthesis, cell wall, cellulose, chloroplast. chlorophyll, permanent vacuole, genetic material, bacterial colony, specialised, diffusion, concentration gradient, differentiate, multicellular, muscular, glandular, epithelial, epidermal, mesophyll, xylem, phloem, organ, intestine, insoluble molecule, salivary gland.
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